Monday, September 8, 2014

This is 2014 not 1944 - appalling sermon from Slovakia

I read this this morning.  It is disturbing to say the least.  If it had been written in 1944 I might be able to put an historical context about it, but it was written in the last two days.

Emil Floris (born 1955) is a priest of the diocese of Zilina in Slovakia.  Ordained in 1981 he holds degrees from the Pontifical University of Krakow at doctoral level. At present he is the parish priest of Cadci (or Cadca).  I hope we do not have to wait long to hear of an official response from the bishop, Tomas Galis. 


Fr Emil Floris



He warns that the Roma are headed in the same direction

Prague, Sept 6 (ČTK) — Slovak Catholic priest Emil Floriš said the Jews themselves are to blame for the Holocaust and the same can happen to Romanies, the Czech daily Právo writes.


"A part of the speech by Floriš, who spoke at a mass in Čadca, north central Slovakia, that was devoted to Jews and the Holocaust offends and humiliates the memory of the victims," Lucia Kollárová, spokeswoman for the Headquarters of the Jewish Religious Communities in Slovakia, told the Slovak news agency SITA, Právo writes.

Kollárová said a part of Floriš's speech included untruths and anti-Semitic cliches, relativizing the suffering of the Jewish population during World War Two, also on the territory of present-day Slovakia.

Floriš reportedly said Jews from all over Europe had been transported to the concentration camps because they were hated, for which they themselves were to blame, Právo writes.

"Now the same is threatening Romanies. Do you know why? Because they abuse the system and charity of people," Floriš said before hundreds of church-goers, Právo writes.

About 70,000 Jews were deported from war-time Slovakia, a Nazi-controlled puppet state, during the war. About 67,000 of them perished in Nazi death camps.

The head of wartime Slovakia, Catholic priest Jozef Tiso was executed as a war criminal in 1947.  


Saturday, September 6, 2014

Polish Catholics rescuing Jews near Treblinka

This article was published in April 2014.  It has been sitting in my "in tray" since then waiting to be read.  It is a wonderfully positive story about a Catholic priest's commitment to research and tell another part of the story of the Holocaust in Poland, focusing on the area where he grew up, a place known to history as Treblinka.


Treblinka, August 2005
Each stone represents a murdered community of Jews of more than 5000 people.  
Historians estimate the number of Jewish children, women and men murdered on this site to be between 800,000 - 900,000.  It is the largest killing ground in the world after Auschwitz.

Growing up near Treblinka 
inspired priest's Holocaust research

By Judith Sudilovsky

JERUSALEM (CNS) -- The Nazis' Treblinka concentration camp has always been a part of Father Pawel Rytel-Andrianik's life.

Growing up in the shadow of the camp, located just three miles from his home in northeastern Poland, Father Rytel-Andrianik, now 37, would listen to his grandfather's account of his eight-month imprisonment there and how he contracted typhus under inhumane conditions.

The priest's grandfather, Stanislaw Rytel, was jailed for failing to collaborate with the Nazis, ultimately to be saved by a friend and fellow prisoner, who convinced camp guards that Rytel was his brother and his labor was needed to build a new barrack at the camp.

Such stories have inspired Father Rytel-Andrianik to learn more about people who risked their lives to save Jews and others during Europe's Nazi era.

Father Rytel-Andrianik, professor of Scripture at the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross in Rome, is collecting the stories and building lists of names of average people, priests and nuns who risked their lives to save Jews. In 2011, he published a book about the heroic acts of Poles protecting Jews, "I Will Give Them an Everlasting Name (Isaiah 56:5) Poles Savings Jews in the Area of Treblinka." It was written in Polish with Hebrew and English summaries.

The priest spoke with Catholic News Service in April in Jerusalem, where he regularly visits the Yad Vashem Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Authority and interviews Holocaust survivors.

Working with a small team of researchers, the priest recently completed the Priests for Jews project, with support from the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops' Subcommittee on the Church in Central and Eastern Europe and the Saeman Family Foundation. He discovered the names of 1,000 priests who saved Jews from certain death. The completed project is scheduled to be finished by the end of 2014 and will include a book and a website with archival documents and firsthand testimonies. 

He also is compiling a list nuns who helped saved people, building on the work of Polish researcher Ewa Kurek, whose own research uncovered that nearly two-thirds of the 85 women's religious communities in 360 convents in Poland during World War II were engaged in rescue work.

Father Rytel-Andrianik said the Auschwitz concentration camp in southern Poland is better known than Treblinka, because all that remains of the second camp is a 26-foot memorial in Poland's northeastern forest.

"This is the atmosphere I grew up with. I always wanted to know more and more about what happened in Treblinka. I read and listened. My mother always reminded me that I was given a life because someone saved my grandfather's life," he said.

Father Rytel-Andrianik is driven by a sense of indebtedness to the man who saved his grandfather's life and the thousands of others who risked their lives to protect Jews. At first he wanted to record the brave acts of Poles who dared defy Nazi rule. His work led him to discover that many Polish nuns and priests -- among them some he knew as a child -- also rescued Jews.

The priest said he wanted to highlight the good that existed in people in the darkest times of World War II, when it seemed that God was absent.

"The Holocaust shows what humanity can do with the exclusion of God," he said.

Of the 16,000 priests in Poland during World War II, 4,000 were imprisoned not only for helping Jews but also for a variety of violations of Nazi law, Father Rytel-Andrianik said. About half of the clergy were killed in the camps, according to his research.

Jesuit Father Adam Sztark and the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary from the parish in Slonim are among those whose bravery has been recorded and recognized as Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem, Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Authority

Father Sztark and Sister Maria Marta, superior at the convent, and Sister Maria Ewa, a medical doctor, provided food and money to Jews, issued false baptismal records, urged parishioners to help their Jewish neighbors and hid Jewish children in the convent. They were executed along with thousands of Jews in December 1942.

The priest was surprised to discover that 100 people who lived near Treblinka have been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.

Despite such heroic actions, anti-Semitism was strong in Poland, and questions have been raised about the reliability of the numbers of priests and religious who protected Jews.

In an article published in 2000 in the journal Yad Vashem Studies, historian Dariusz Libionka of the Polish Center for Holocaust Studies cited the strongly anti-Semitic 1936 pastoral letter of Cardinal August Hlond as an example. The letter accused Jews of being "free-thinkers, atheists and Bolsheviks," and of having a "disastrous effect on morality." In addition, Libionka noted that, unlike communications from the bishops of other occupied countries, the communications from Polish bishops to the pope made little mention of the annihilation of the Jews.

In the introduction to Father Rytel-Andrianik's 2011 book, Brandeis University Holocaust scholar Antony Polonsky wrote that the accepted number of 20,000 Jews who survived on the "Aryan" side should be doubled or tripled, which would also indicate more rescuers than previously believed.

Havi Dreifuss, director of the Center for the Study of the Holocaust in Poland at the International Institute for Holocaust Research at Yad Vashem, told CNS that interest has risen in trying to find people who helped Jews in Poland. She cautioned that such research must be conducted carefully.

"Jewish-Polish relations in general and with segments of (the) priesthood are very complex," Dreifuss said, adding that she was not familiar with Father Rytel-Andrianik's work. "Today we can say that the vast majority of Polish society was quite indifferent to the suffering of the Jews during the Holocaust as they were quite occupied with their own suffering under German occupation.

"There was a small portion of Poles who helped and they were from all parts of Polish society ... priests and nuns for sure were among them. Things were so complicated it is very difficult to assess today what happened," she said.

Father Rytel-Andrianik said although some people believe that priests did not do enough to oppose the Nazis, he believes many priests did more than is known.

The research "is crucial. If we don't do it now, everything will be lost. All the survivors will be gone," Father Rytel-Andrianik said. "We interview survivors but also priests and other witnesses. The whole idea is to commemorate. No one did enough. Only the person who risked his own life did enough."



Fr Pawel Rytel-Andrianik

Sunday, August 17, 2014

ADSS 11.330 Giovanni Montini to representatives of the Holy See - death of Cardinal Maglione

Cardinal Maglione had left Rome on 21.07.1944 for some vacation time in his hometown of Casoria, about ten kilometres north of Naples. Luigi Maglione had a heart condition that had gradually worsened over the war years.  The pope had told him to take what ever time he needed to recover (ADSS 11.314).  Ten days later he was admitted to one of the "fixed hospitals" established by the American army after the liberation of Naples in October 1943.  He stayed for just under two weeks before discharging himself and returning home to Casoria.   On 22.08.1944 Maglione suffered a fatal heart attack.  His death came as a shock to his colleagues in the Secretariat of State where Giovanni Battista Montini and Domenico Tardini had assumed Maglione's responsibilities.  Upon Maglione's death, Pius XII subsumed the position of Secretary of State into his own office for the rest of his pontificate.

11.330 Giovanni Battista Montini to representatives of the Holy See.

Reference: Telegram circular. (ASS Maglione file)

Location and date: Vatican, 22.08.1944

Summary statement: News of the death of Cardinal Maglione.

Language: French

Text:

It is my sorrowful duty to communicate that today, 22 August, at 04.00 this morning, my dear superior, Cardinal Maglione died of a heart attack in Casoria. (1) I commend him to your prayers.  Would you please inform governments (2) and episcopates.

Montini (3).

Notes:
(1) See ADSS 11.314.  Cardinal Maglione had voluntarily left the American hospital in Naples on 12.08.1944 and stayed in his home in Casoria.  News of his death was telephoned to Domenico Tardini by Alfonso Castaldo (1890-1966) bishop of Pozzuoli (1935-1950).
(2) The text sent to Apostolic Delegates omitted the word “government”.
(3) The same communication sent to the Curial cardinals and those outside of Rome was signed by both Montini and Tardini.


 Luigi Cardinal Maglione 1877-1944
Secretary of State 1939-1944
Photo taken in 1927 while he was nuncio in France.


ADSS 10.313 Amleto Cicognani to Secretariat of State - Jew in Lithuania, Hungary and Poland


Reference: Telegram 2331 (AES 6521/44)

Location and date: Washington DC, 31.08.1944 @ 06.16 (received Rome 01.09.1944 @ 13.30)

Summary statement: Request intervention for the Jews of Lithuania, Hungary and Poland.

Language: Italian

Text:

The Special Committee for Assistance to the Jews appeals for the intervention of the Holy Father to save Jews from persecution and death (as well as provision of food and medicine):
1. Jews transferred from Lithuania to East Prussia (1);
2. Jews in Hungary transported to unknown destinations (2);
3. Jew in Poland are systematically murdered before the Germans abandon the city (3).

Notes:
(1) The Jewish Telegraph Agency published on 08.08.1944: “with part of Lithuania now liberated by the Russian armies, a picture emerges showing Catholic priests in Lithuanian towns often actively though futilely intervening with the German occupation authorities for the life of Jews and often risking their own lives to hide Jews from Nazi extermination”.  (Article attached to report 1345/44 of 26.08.1944; AES 2769/44).  The Soviet advance into the Baltic States began in the early spring of 1944 and was largely complete by September-October.  Lithuania was occupied throughout July, and the capital, Vilnius, fell to the Red Army on 13.07.1944.
(2) See ADSS 10.321.
(3) On 04.09.1944 Rabbi Avraham Kalmanowitz (1891-1964) wrote to Cicognani thanking him for his appeal. (Archives Ap Del Washington).  On 03.09.1944 Domenico Tardini sent a telegram to Cesare Orsenigo in Berlin with the contents of Cicognani’s appeal.  In it he wrote “It is the earnest desire of the Holy Father that your Reverence take every measure to come to the aid of all who suffer in this regard”. (Telegram 849, AES 6522/44).  Of course by this stage of the war nearly all the Jews of Lithuania and Poland were dead; the Jews of Budapest - between eighty to ninety thousand - comprised the largest concentration of Jews left alive anywhere in western and central Europe.


Sunday, August 3, 2014

ADSS 10.308 Angelo Rotta to Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs - plea from the neutral powers


By the middle of August the Germans were growing more strident in their demands for the resumption of deportations.    

“The government meeting of August 2 made it clear that the cabinet still wished to continue the deportations.  Andor Jaross (Interior Minister) proposed the transportation of all Budapest Jews with the exception of Jews who had converted to Christianity.  The minister of the interior even considered the technical details.  This was too much for Horthy: he dismissed Jaross and appointed State Secretary Miklos Bonczos of the Ministry of Justice as his replacement.  On August 8, the Baky resigned, and two weeks later Endre was relieved of his post as well. 

The personnel change did not make a substantive difference to the situation.  Sztojay informed Veesenmayer that within a week or two the deportations could resume. At the August 10 government meeting, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Mihaly Jungeroth-Arnothy, up until then considered relatively moderate, proposed that in order to satisfy German demands, ’50-60 thousand Jews from Galicia seeping into the country’ should be deported’.  On August 19, Minister of the Interior Bonczos promised Eichmann that the deportations could start on August 25 … The government, with Horthy’s approval, even drafted an agreement with the Germans regarding the resumption of deportations”. The Holocaust in Hungary, pp 141-42.

However, the plans were abandoned because of the worsening conditions on both eastern and western fronts.  Romania deserted the Axis and joined the Allies on 23 August 1944.  Horthy told Veesenmayer that there would be no more deportations, but the Jews in Budapest would be sent to ghettoes and camps outside the capital. Germany also needed to keep Hungary compliant for both defensive and economic reasons; therefore the Jews could wait.  For the remaining Jews of Hungary there was a palpable sense of “the worst was over”; and it was – until October 1944.

The nuncio’s letter indicates, yet again, how well informed the nunciature was on German-Hungarian politics.  And if the nuncio was well informed, the pope was also well informed.




Reference: No number (AES 6397/44)

Location and date: Budapest, 21.08.1944

Summary statement: Petition made to the Hungarian gov’t by the neutral powers – Holy See, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal – for the Jews.

Language: French

Text:

The undersigned Representatives of the Neutral Powers accredited to Budapest (1) have learned with painful surprise that the deportation of the Jews of Hungary will recommence soon.  They are also informed – and the sources are absolutely reliable – that deportation is exactly what is meant, even if it is disguised as work abroad.

Leaving aside the unfortunate fact that the new deportations would be for these countries the coup de grace of the good reputation of Hungary, already so seriously affected by the completed deportations.  The Representatives of the Neutral Powers, with a sense of human solidarity and Christian charity, feel obliged to raise an energetic protest against this unjust proposal – because it is absolutely unacceptable for men to be persecuted and put to death by the mere fact of their race – and brutal execution.

They ask the Royal Government of Hungary to kindly put an end to these processes, which should have never started in the first place, for the honour of Humanity.  They express their hope that Hungary, looking towards its ancient traditions, may return to the principles and chivalrous ways and with the fullness of the Christian spirit that has earned it a high place among civilised peoples.


Notes:
(1) The signatories were: Angelo Rotta (1872-1965), Nuncio; Carl Ivan Danielsson (1880-1963), Swedish minister; Carlos de Liz-Teixeira Branqhuinho (1902-1973), charge d’affaires Portugal; Angel Sanz-Briz (1910-1980), charge d’affaires Spain; Antoine Josef Kilchmann (1902-1961), charge d’affaires Switzerland.  A copy of the note was sent with Report 1919/44, prot. 965, 01.09.1944 (AES 6397/44). Note: The original note records the Spanish charge d’affaires as Miguel Sanz-Briz.  This is incorrect.  Angel Sanz-Briz took over from Miguel Angel de Muguiro in June 1944.

NB: Rotta (1997), Danielsson (1982), Sanz-Briz (1966) were listed among the Righteous of the Nations by Yad Vashem in recognition of their work in saving Jewish lives.


ADSS 10.295 Amleto Cicognani, Apostolic Delegate USA to Luigi Maglione - Hungarian Jews

10.295 Amleto Cicognani, Ap Del USA to Cardinal Maglione

Reference: Telegram 2288 (AES 5957/44)

Location and date: Washington DC, 09.08.1944 @ 17.00 (Received Rome 10.08.1944 @ 17.00)

Summary statement: Recognition of the American Jewish Committee of the efforts made by the Holy See for the Hungarian Jews.

Language: Italian

Text:

The American Jewish Committee and the Committee for the Salvation of the Jews of Europe have asked me to send to the Holy Father and your Eminence their expression of profound gratitude for the significant improvement in Hungary.  News confirms that the deportation of the Jews has ceased and the committee recognises that this is due to the Holy Father. (1)

Notes:

(1) On 28.08.1944 Domenico Tardini telegraphed Washington (Telegram 1821, AES 6512/44) to “Representatives of the National Jewish Welfare Board” of New York who had sent their expression of gratitude to the Holy Father for the work done by the Holy See for the non-Aryans in Italy”. (See ADSS 10.272).

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